Amanda Briney, M.A., is a professional geographer. 1.1 The status of "British Dependent Territory" was created by the BNA 1981 and, by virtue of a connection with such a place, a person may be or become a BDTC under Part II of the 1981 Act. From 1949 to 1983, the nationality status of Citizenship of UK and Colonies (CUKC) was shared by residents of the UK proper and residents of overseas territories, although most residents of overseas territories lost their automatic right to live in the UK after the ratification of Commonwealth Immigrants Act 1968 that year unless they were born in the UK proper or had a parent or a grandparent born in the UK. The current Constitution, incorporating a Bill of Rights, was ordained by a statutory instrument of the United Kingdom in 2009. [3][better source needed], As of April 2018[update], three Territories (the Falkland Islands, Gibraltar and the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia in Cyprus) are the responsibility of the Minister of State for Europe and the Americas; the Minister responsible for the remaining Territories is the Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for the Overseas Territories and Sustainable Development. From the mid-nineteenth century to the early twentieth century, the larger settler colonies – in Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa – first became self-governing colonies and then achieved independence in all matters except foreign policy, defence and trade. A Commissioner has the same powers as a Governor, but also acts as the head of government. [45], All the overseas territories have their own system of government, and localised laws. Currently (2019) all but two Governors are either career diplomats or have worked in other Civil Service departments. The legal system is generally based on English common law, with some distinctions for local circumstances. [55][56] Within the FCO, the general responsibility for the territories is handled by the Overseas Territories Directorate. List of Commonwealth countries, British Overseas Territories, British Crown Dependencies and EU member states . In 2002, the British Parliament passed the British Overseas Territories Act 2002. Proctor, Wade-Fray and Cassar qualified for Team GB, with Williams missing the cut, however wishing to represent the UK in 2016.[80][81]. Europe Why a no-deal Brexit has British Overseas Territories worried. Permanent residency for the approximately 7,000 civilians living in the Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia is limited to citizens of the Republic of Cyprus[citation needed]. At the other end of the scale, three territories have no civilian population; the Antarctic territory, the British Indian Ocean Territory (from which the Chagos Islanders were controversially removed) and South Georgia. South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands 13. Each territory has its own attorney general, and court system. These territories are current British overseas territories from their formation on 1 January 1983. The United Kingdom Overseas Territories Association (UKOTA) also represents the interests of the territories in London. The Cayman Islands are a British overseas territory, listed by the UN Special Committee of 24 as one of the last non-self-governing territories. Five nations contest, with counter-claims, the UK's sovereignty in the following overseas territories: None of the overseas territories has its own nationality status, and most residents hold two forms of British nationality: British Overseas Territories citizenship (BOTC) and British citizenship. Falkland Islands 8. The Governor is also responsible for liaising with the UK Government, and carrying out any ceremonial duties. Most British Overseas Territories are self-governing but rely on the UK in crucial matters of foreign policy etc. The Pitcairn sexual assault trial of 2004 is an example of how the UK may choose to provide the legal framework for particular cases where the territory cannot do so alone. British overseas territories: an overview. The territory includes three regions which were administered independently as part of the Falkland Islands before 1962. The UK exerts its formal control through a governor of each territory, appointed by the British Monarch. British Indian Ocean Territory 5. The UK Overseas Territories are: Anguilla; Bermuda; British Antarctic Territory (BAT) - ASSI has no direct responsibility in relation to BAT as the Antarctic Treaty takes precedence. [45], Each overseas territory has its own legal system independent of the United Kingdom. [84][85] Gibraltar's Gorham's Cave Complex is also found on the UK's tentative UNESCO World Heritage Site list. These and other large self-governing colonies had become known as Dominions by the 1920s. Level 45. [67] This restored the right of abode in the UK to residents of overseas territories after a 34-year hiatus from 1968 to 2002. Brexit will have profound consequences for the 250,000 people in the UK's overseas territories. Commonwealth countries1. For other uses, see Bots (disambiguation).. British Overseas Territories. Amidst the mass decolonization of the British Rule some of the colonies remained under British Monarchy, formulating eventually into the British Overseas Territories. George Town in the Cayman Islands has consequently become the largest city in the Overseas Territories. Montserrat Sep 3, 2015. Gibraltar was the only overseas territory that was part of the EU, although it was not part of the European Customs Union, the European Tax Policy, the European Statistics Zone or the Common Agriculture Policy. There were only two exceptions: Falkland Islanders, who were automatically granted British citizenship and was treated as a part of the UK proper through the enactment of British Nationality (Falkland Islands) Act 1983 due to the Falklands War with Argentina, and Gibraltarians who were given the special entitlement to be registered as British citizens upon request without further conditions because of its individual membership in the European Economic Area and the European Community.[66]. [73]Pitcairn Islands dollar (parity with New Zealand dollar; commemorative issue only), United States dollar (de facto)[74][75] They are remnants of the British Empire and do not form part of the United Kingdom itself. Pound sterling (widely circulated and accepted universally)[citation needed] It is geographically the largest of the 14 British Overseas Territories with an area of 660,000 square miles. Sovereign Base Areas of Akrotiri and Dhekelia, Capital: Plymouth (abandoned); Brades (center of government today). Pitcairn Islands, settled by the survivors of the Mutiny on the Bounty, is the smallest settled territory with 49 inhabitants, while the smallest by land area is Gibraltar on the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula. However, territorial claims on the continent may not currently be advanced, under the holding measures of the Antarctic Treaty System. Exceptionally, in the oversea territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, an Administrator is appointed to be the Governor's representative in each of the two distant parts of the territory, namely Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha. Five years after the handover of Hong Kong to China in 1997, the British government amended the 1981 Act to give British citizenship without restrictions to all BDTCs (the status was also renamed BOTC at the same time) except for those solely connected with Akrotiri and Dhekelia (whose residents already held Cypriot citizenship). For the smaller territories, the UK may appoint a UK-based lawyer or judge to work on legal cases. Montserrat 10. The structure of the government appears to be closely correlated to the size and political development of the territory. The British Antarctic Territory has some overlap with territorial claims by both Argentina and Chile. Bermuda and Bermudians have played important, sometimes pivotal, but generally underestimated or unacknowledged roles in the shaping of the English and British trans-Atlantic Empires. Since they are separate jurisdictions, there is no British Overseas Territories' representation in the British parliament. Bahamian dollar (accepted unofficially in the Turks and Caicos Islands)[citation needed], Eastern Caribbean dollar (pegged to US dollar at 2.7ECD=1USD), Bermudian dollar (parity with US dollar) [83], The UK created the largest continuous marine protected areas in the world, the Chagos Marine Protected Area, and announced in 2015 funding to establish a new, larger, reserve around the Pitcairn Islands. Pitcairn Islands 11. The British Overseas Territories are also referred to as overseas territories of the United Kingdom, UK overseas territories, or when the context is clear, … There is no elected government, as there is no native settled population. The UK exerts its formal control through a governor of each territory, appointed by the British Monarch. It has been accepted by FIFA and went into the 2018 FIFA World Cup qualifying, where they achieved 0 points. 1 Part of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha. Traditionally, the flags follow the Blue Ensign design, with the Union Flag in the canton, and the territory's coat of arms in the fly. Foreign affairs of the overseas territories are handled by the FCO in London. For other uses, see, Territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom, Location of the United Kingdom and the British Overseas Territories, British Overseas Territories Joint Ministerial Council, Articles relating to British overseas territories, Section 5 of British Nationality Act 1983. [87][88][89], In January 2016, the UK government announced the intention to create a marine protected area around Ascension Island. The governors of the territories may also allow naturalization of non-BOTCs as BOTCs. 1 Antigua and Barbuda Lesotho Sierra Leone Australia Malawi Singapore The Bahamas Malaysia Solomon Islands Bangladesh Malta* South Africa Barbados Mauritius Sri Lanka Belize Mozambique Swaziland Botswana Namibia Tonga Brunei Nauru Trinidad … Separate self-governing colonies federated to become Canada (in 1867), Australia (in 1901), South Africa (in 1910), and Rhodesia (in 1965). Pound sterling (widely circulated and accepted universally)[citation needed] The OCT Association also provided overseas territories with structural funding for regeneration projects. Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha 12. The Commander British Forces Cyprus acts as the territory's Administrator, with a Chief Officer responsible for day-to-day running of the civil government. St. George's town, founded in Bermuda in that year, remains the oldest continuously inhabited British settlement in the New World (with some historians stating that – its formation predating the 1619 conversion of "James Fort" into "Jamestown" – St. George's was actually the first successful town the English established in the New World). British Empire, a worldwide system of dependencies— colonies, protectorates, and other territories—that over a span of some three centuries was brought under the sovereignty of the crown of Great Britain and the administration of the British government. Pound sterling (de jure)[76][77]. The fourteen British Overseas Territories are territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom.They do not, however, form part of it. The Queen's role in the territories is in her role as Queen of the United Kingdom, and not in right of each territory. (C) The British Overseas Territories (BOT) are fourteen far-flung possessions under British sovereignty that hearken to the era when Britannia truly ruled the waves. It’s most prominent feature is the Rock of Gibraltar which is a large rock which dominates the entrance to the Mediterranian Sea. Through a process of decolonisation following the Second World War, most of the British colonies in Africa, Asia and the Caribbean gained independence. The Good Government Fund which provides assistance on government administration; The Economic Diversification Programme Budget which aim to diversify and enhance the economic bases of the territories. [33][34] The British Overseas Territories and Crown Dependencies are themselves distinct from the Commonwealth realms, a group of 16 independent countries (including the United Kingdom) each having Elizabeth II as their reigning monarch, and from the Commonwealth of Nations, a voluntary association of 53 countries mostly with historic links to the British Empire (which also includes all Commonwealth realms). The British Antarctic Territory is a section of the Antarctic under the jurisdiction of the UK. They all have the British monarch as head of state. The protected area would be 234,291 square kilometers, half of which would be closed to fishing. The British Overseas Territories (BOT) or alternatively, United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs), are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom. This site uses cookies to store information on your computer. The first, unofficial, colony was Newfoundland, where English fishermen routinely set up seasonal camps in the 16th century. Bermuda 3. The bicameral, The Turks and Caicos Islands adopted a new constitution effective 9 August 2006; their head of government now also has the title, All members elected either as MPs in the UK cabinet, Defence, security and safety of the territories and their people. United States dollar (accepted unofficially in most establishments)[citation needed], Gibraltar pound (parity with pound sterling) Sie liegen zum größten Teil außerhalb Europas und sind mit Ausnahme Gibraltars nicht Teil der Europäischen Union. Die Britischen Überseegebiete (englisch British Overseas Territories) sind 14 (Stand: 2010)[1] Gebiete, die nicht Teil des Vereinigten Königreiches Großbritannien und Nordirland sind, aber unter dessen Souveränität stehen. Akrotiri and Dhekelia and Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha are the only British overseas territories without their own flag, though Saint Helena, Ascension Island and Tristan da Cunha have their own individual flags. These include maritime commerce, settlement of the continent and of the West Indies, and the projection of naval power via the colony's privateers, among other areas.[39][40]. BAT was formed on March 3, 1962, although the UK claimed it both in 1908 and 1917. Responsibility for protection of biodiversity and meeting obligations under international environmental conventions is shared between the UK Government and the local governments of the territories. It retains strong cultural ties with Britain. Since then, many territories around the world have been under the control of the United Kingdom or its predecessor states. Population: 35,000 Area: 6.7 km2 (2.6 mi2) Gibraltar is the second smallest British territory and the only one which is a part of continental Europe. Antigua and Barbuda Kenya Samoa Australia Kiribati Seychelles The Bahamas Lesotho Sierra Leone Bangladesh Malawi Singapore Barbados Malaysia Solomon Islands Belize Maldives South Africa Botswana Malta Sri Lanka Brunel Darussalam … This is particularly important for cases involving serious crimes and where it is impossible to find a jury who will not know the defendant in a small population island.[51]. In the case of Hong Kong before 1 July 1997, residents could (in some circumstances) register as British nationals overseas (BNO). The territories are members of the Commonwealth of Nations through the United Kingdom. Some colonies became Commonwealth realms, retaining the British monarch as their own head of state. Some territories maintain diplomatic officers in nearby countries for trade and immigration purposes. The role of the Governor is to act as the de facto head of state, and they are usually responsible for appointing the head of government, and senior political positions in the territory. For these residents, registration as full British citizens then required physical residence in the UK proper. RedBishop +1. In addition, most territories have customs, immigration, border, and coastguard agencies. British Indian Ocean Territory; British Virgin Islands; Cayman Islands; Falkland Islands; Gibraltar - outside ASSI's remit due to its position within the European Union. The, There is no elected government. A Joint Ministerial Council of UK ministers, and the leaders of the Overseas Territories has been held annually since 2012 to provide representation between UK Government departments and Overseas Territory Governments.[52]. Most countries do not recognise the sovereignty claims of any other country, including Britain's, to Antarctica and its off-shore islands. The British Overseas Territories generally look after their own policing matters and have their own police forces. Geography of the Territories of the United States, Geography of the Windward and Leeward Islands, M.A., Geography, California State University - East Bay, B.A., English and Geography, California State University - Sacramento. This reclassified the UK's dependent territories as overseas territories and, with the exception of those people solely connected with the Sovereign Base Areas of Cyprus, restored full British citizenship to their inhabitants.[44]. The British Overseas Territories have more biodiversity than the entire UK mainland. A 20-seat Legislative Assembly is elected by the people every four years to handle domestic affairs. There are a total of 14 British overseas territories — 10 of which are included on the UN's list of non-self-governing territories. [83], Two areas, Henderson Island in the Pitcairn Islands as well as the Gough and Inaccessible Islands of Tristan Da Cunha are listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites, and two other territories, the Turks and Caicos Islands, and Saint Helena are on the United Kingdom's tentative list for future UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The British originally took control of Gibraltar to control shipping and out of the Mediterranean Sea. Gibraltar 9. Phillips Idowu tracked down... in Team GB photo – Olympic News", "About the Biodiversity of the UK Overseas Territories", "Science: UK Overseas Territories: Biodiversity", "Turks and Caicos Islands – UNESCO World Heritage Centre", "Island of St Helena – UNESCO World Heritage Centre", "World's Largest Single Marine Reserve Created in Pacific", "Pitcairn Islands get huge marine reserve", "Pitcairn Islands to get world's largest single marine reserve", "Ascension Island to become marine reserve", Outposts: Journeys to the Surviving Relics of the British Empire, Foreign and Commonwealth Office – UK Overseas Territories, British Overseas Territories Act 2002 – Text of the Act, Governors, civil commissioners, and administrators of British dependencies, Commissioner for the British Antarctic Territory, Commissioner for the British Indian Ocean Territory, Commissioner for South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Governor-General of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland, Governors of British South African colonies, Lieutenant-Governor of Demerara-Essequibo, Governor of Saint Christopher, Nevis and Anguilla, Governor-in-Chief of the Windward Islands, Governor-General of the West Indies Federation, Governor of Rhode-island and Providence Plantations, High Commissioner for the Federated Malay States, General Adviser to the Government of Johore, High Commissioners for Palestine and Transjordan, High Commissioner for the Western Pacific, Lieutenant Governor of the Swan River Colony, List of countries by English-speaking population, List of countries where English is an official language,, Dependent territories of European countries, 1983 establishments in British Overseas Territories, Articles with dead external links from November 2016, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles lacking reliable references from June 2020, Articles containing potentially dated statements from April 2018, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2021, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2009, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November 2020, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from November 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2010, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "A people of excellence, moulded by nature, nurtured by God". There is no native or permanent population; therefore there is no elected government. Each overseas territory has been granted its own flag and coat of arms by the British monarch. [86], The three regions of biodiversity hotspots situated in the British Overseas Territories are the Caribbean Islands, the Mediterranean Basin and the Oceania ecozone in the Pacific. [82] There are at least 180 endemic plant species in the overseas territories as opposed to only 12 on the UK mainland. The term "British Overseas Territory" was introduced by the British Overseas Territories Act 2002, replacing the term British Dependent Territory, introduced by the British Nationality Act 1981. They include: The 14 British overseas territories use a varied assortment of currencies, including the Euro, British pound, United States dollar, New Zealand dollar, or their own currencies, which may be pegged to one of these. In smaller territories, the senior officer(s) may be recruited or seconded from a UK police force, and specialist staff and equipment may be sent to assist the local force. financial contribution to recurrent funding). Cayman Islands 7. Turks and Caicos Islands As a British overseas territory, the British Virgin Islands must implement all international sanctions that are extended to it through legislative action by the UK government. Full British citizenship[64] has been granted to most 'belongers' of overseas territories (mainly since the British Overseas Territories Act 2002). [citation needed] Several specialist funds are made available by the UK, including: The territories have no official representation in the UK Parliament, but have informal representation through the All-Party Parliamentary Group,[60] and can petition the UK Government through the Directgov e-Petitions website. Commemorative UK Pounds and Stamps issued in GBP have been issued. Its offshoot, Bermuda, was settled inadvertently after the wrecking of the Virginia company's flagship there in 1609, with the Virginia Company's charter extended to officially include the archipelago in 1612. The UK's mainland consists of the island of Great Britain (England, Scotland, and Wales) and Northern Ireland. A territory may issue belonger status to allow a person to reside in the territory that they have close links with. Euro (accepted unofficially in most establishments)[citation needed] South Sandwich and the South Georgia Islands, 5. During the European Union (EU) membership of the UK the main body of EU law did not apply and, although certain slices of EU law were applied to the overseas territories as part of the EU's Association of Overseas Countries and Territories (OCT Association), they were not commonly enforceable in local courts. only Montserrat and Saint Helena receive budgetary aid (i.e. The UK's mainland consists of the island of Great Britain (England, Scotland, and Wales) and Northern Ireland. Bermuda, the British Virgin Islands and the Cayman Islands are the only British Overseas Territories with recognised National Olympic Committees (NOCs); the British Olympic Association is recognised as the appropriate NOC for athletes from the other territories, and thus athletes who hold a British passport are eligible to represent Great Britain at the Olympic Games. Most of the permanently inhabited territories are internally self-governing, with the UK retaining responsibility for defence and foreign relations. After the independence of Southern Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) in Africa in 1980 and British Honduras (now Belize) in Central America in 1981, the last major colony that remained was Hong Kong, with a population of over 5 million. The British Overseas Territories located in the Caribbean, once widely known as British West Indies, represented back in the heyday of the Empire just small additions of red marks in the imperial map. [90], A Stoplight Parrotfish in Princess Alexandra Land and Sea National Park, Providenciales, Turks and Caicos Islands, Click on a coloured area to see an article about English in that country or region, "BOTs" redirects here. Territories with military bases or responsibilities may also have "Overseas Service Police", members of the British or Commonwealth Armed Forces. United States dollar (accepted unofficially)[72]Pound sterling is also accepted. Exceptions to this are Bermuda which uses a Red Ensign; British Antarctic Territory which uses a White Ensign, but without the overall cross of St. George; British Indian Ocean Territory which uses a Blue Ensign with wavy lines to symbolise the sea; and Gibraltar which uses a banner of its coat of arms (the flag of the city of Gibraltar). Collectively, the Territories encompass a population of about 250,000 people[31] and a land area of about 1,700,000 square kilometres (660,000 sq mi). [38] It is now a province of Canada known as Newfoundland and Labrador. Since they are separate jurisdictions, there is no British Overseas Territories’ representation in the British parliament. With the exceptions of the British Antarctic Territory and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (which host only officials and research station staff) and the British Indian Ocean Territory (used as a military base), the Territories retain permanent civilian populations. For reference, their populations and capital cities have also been included. The long-running dispute was referred in 2017 to the International Court of Justice, which issued an advisory opinion on 25 February 2019 which supported the position of the Government of Mauritius. Im Jahr 2002 verabschiedete das Parlament des Vereinigten Königreiches den British … Llanito. Gibraltar was a fortress which was never conquered while under British control. The Commissioner, supported by an Administrator, runs the affairs of the territory.

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