Parliamentary democracy developed considerably in the 19th century. You will explore Blacks in ancient art history, learn about the powerful ancient Kushite Kingdom, that once ruled Egypt, and meet ancient Black history’s most important historian, Dr. Frank Martin Snowden Jr., and much more! History of the United Provinces. With this colonization, Greek culture was exported to Italy, in its dialects of the Ancient Greek language, its religious rites and its traditions of the independent polis. This decision angered the Fascist regime. The ancient geographers differed on whether the term included Sicily or merely Apulia, Campania and Calabria—Strabo being the most prominent advocate of the wider definitions. Fiat managed to remain at the cutting edge of car manufacturing technology, enabling it to expand production, foreign sales, and profits.[143]. Finally, De Gasperi supervised the transition to a Republic following the abdication of Vittorio Emanuele III on 9 May 1946, the one-month-long reign of his son Umberto II ("King of May") and the Constitutional Referendum that abolished the monarchy; De Gasperi briefly became acting Head of State as well as Prime Minister on 18 June 1946, but ceded the former role to Provisional President Enrico de Nicola ten days later. Pasquino, Gianfranco. 800 BCE. In October 1922, Mussolini took advantage of a general strike to announce his demands to the Italian government to give the Fascist Party political power or face a coup. The Italian kingdoms thus fell, and Italy's Restoration period began, with many pre-Napoleonic sovereigns returned to their thrones. Octavius (Caesar's adopted son), along with general Mark Antony and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, Caesar's best friend,[39] established the Second Triumvirate. Subsequently, beating off Austrian counterattacks and continuing to advance, he arrived in the Veneto in 1797. Originally arising from dynastic disputes over the Duchy of Milan and the Kingdom of Naples, the wars rapidly became a general struggle for power and territory among their various participants, marked with an increasing number of alliances, counter-alliances, and betrayals. This situation was shaken in 1796, when the French Army of Italy under Napoleon invaded Italy, with the aims of forcing the First Coalition to abandon Sardinia (where they had created an anti-revolutionary puppet-ruler) and forcing Austria to withdraw from Italy. Little is certain about the history of the Roman Kingdom, as nearly no written records from that time survive, and the histories about it that were written during the Republic and Empire are largely based on legends. In 1808, he also annexed Marche and Tuscany to the Kingdom of Italy. A new government was formed by Democrats of the Left leader and former communist Massimo D'Alema, but in April 2000, following poor performance by his coalition in regional elections, D'Alema resigned. Following Antony's Donations of Alexandria, which gave to Cleopatra the title of "Queen of Kings", and to their children the regal titles to the newly conquered Eastern territories, the war between Octavian and Mark Antony broke out. His leadership brought the zenith of the Roman civilization, that lasted for four decades. In addition, France turned the Netherlands into the Batavian Republic, and Switzerland into the Helvetic Republic. Other Greek scholars of the period were two monks from the monastery of Seminara in Calabria. He set up a series of new republics, complete with new codes of law and abolition of old feudal privileges. Napoleon conquered most of Italy in the name of the French Revolution in 1797–99. Two men, Prime Minister Antonio Salandra and Foreign Minister Sidney Sonnino made all the decisions, as was typical in Italian foreign policy. [92], Cavour decided the basic problem was poor government, and believed that could be remedied by strict application of the Piedmonese legal system. The earthquake that rocked the city of Messina, Italy, in 1908 was the largest ever recorded in Europe, measuring more than 7 on the moment magnitude scale. . The resulting Congress of Vienna (1814) restored a situation close to that of 1795, dividing Italy between Austria (in the north-east and Lombardy), the Kingdom of Sardinia, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (in the south and in Sicily), and Tuscany, the Papal States and other minor states in the centre. The government implemented numerous reforms, including changes to the electoral system, a relaxation of labour and employment laws with the intention of boosting economic growth, a thorough reformation of the public administration and the introduction of same-sex civil unions. In September 1943, Naples rose against the occupying German forces. Since the 13th century, as armies became primarily composed of mercenaries, prosperous city-states could field considerable forces, despite their low populations. However, the southern regions of the young nation remained rural and poor, originating the Italian diaspora. The history of the world isn’t easily condensed, but the timeline here does a good job of hitting the high notes and most significant events of roughly 4,000 years from the beginnings of Hinduism to the freeing of Nelson Mandela. 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