Many Xhosa also live in and around Cape Town , one of South Africa’s capital cities. The word order is subject–verb–object, like in English. The name “Xhosa” comes from that of a legendary leader called uXhosa. There are no definite or indefinite articles. [8][9] Xhosa is spoken as a first language by approximately 8.2 million people and by another 11 million as a second language in South Africa, mostly in Eastern Cape, Western Cape, Gauteng and Northern Cape. Xhosa, a group of mostly related peoples living primarily in Eastern Cape province, South Africa. This is the smarter way of online learning. Ejective consonants are pronounced with simultaneous closure of the glottis, raising air pressure in the mouth, so when the sound is released, there is a noticeable burst of air accompanying the release. / In the International Phonetic Alphabet, clicks are represented by placing the assigned symbol for the place of click articulation to the left of a symbol for a nonclick sound at the same place of articulation. Henry Hare Dugmore helped translate the entire Bible in Xhosa language. However, tones are usually not indicated in writing. iliso (eye), uluhlu (list). In addition to the Xhosa proper, for whom the entire group was named, The murmured clicks, plosives and affricates are only partially voiced, with the following vowel murmured for some speakers. This clue was last seen on February 3 2019 on New York Times’s Crossword. [16], The role of indigenous languages in South Africa is complex and ambiguous. Top 10 Sites to watch Telugu Movies Online in Hd Quality. 2. 1 Before monosyllabic stems, e.g. It is also spoken in Botswana and Lesotho. Xhosa is spoken by 7.6 million people, or about 18% of the South African population. The Xhosa language is properly referred to as isiXhosa. Maho (2009) lists Mpondo (Pondo), Xesibe, Bomvana, Gaika (Ngqika), Gcaleka, Thembu, Mpondomise, Ndlambe, and Hlubi.[4]. The Xhosa language employs 26 letters from the Latin alphabet. Below we picked 70% of the most commonly used words. [16], Called isiXhosa sengingqi ('local Xhosa'), Xhosa has several dialects. John Bennie was a Scottish Presbyterian missionary and early Xhosa linguist. It is a Bantu language closely related to Zulu, Swazi, and Ndebele. Below are some common words and sentences in Xhosa. "Language in South Africa: the role of language in national transformation, reconstruction and development.". The following table gives an overview of Xhosa noun classes, arranged according to singular-plural pairs. The various parts of the sentence must agree in both class and number.[12]. Various parts of speech that qualify a noun must agree with the noun according to its gender. Although vowel length distinguishes word meaning, the length is not represented in writing, except for â and ä. Xhosa has a complex system of consonants, including some uncommon ones. / In Clem et al. Vowels can be either short or long. Xhosa is written using a Latin alphabet. Implosive consonants Xhosa Tribe, Xhosa Language and Xhosa Culture in South Africa Photograph by Bianka Preusker The incorporation of the Khoisan (Khoi and SAN) people into the Xhosa nation left its mark on the Xhosa language. Overview. This post first appeared on Daily Crossword Solver, please read the originial post: here. While palatalisation occurred historically, it is still productive, as is shown by palatalization before the passive suffix /-w/. Implosive consonants are produced by inhaling rather than exhaling the air. [16] In the modern period, it has also borrowed, slightly, from both Afrikaans and English. 3. Originally inhabited by those who referred to themselves as the amaXhosa tribe, and who called the language itself isiXhosa, the language has taken on much influence from the surrounding countries and languages. It shows the journey to manhood, and documents the ins and outs of the… Contact Us, 8.2 million people and by 11 million as a second language in South Africa, mostly in Eastern Cape Province and Transkei. In case something is wrong or missing you are kindly requested to leave a message below and one of our staff members will be more than happy to help you out. For example. The language of instruction at universities in South Africa is English or Afrikaans, and Xhosa is taught as a subject, both for native and for non-native speakers. There are 7,907,153 (17.64 %) first language speakers [2001 census data]. Therefore, the absolute duration of voicing is the same as in tenuis stops. Xhosa (isiXhosa) is the southernmost member of the Bantoid group of the Niger-Congo language family in Africa. Several radio stations and one TV station broadcast in Xhosa. An estimated 15% of Xhosa vocabulary is of San origin. AmaXhosa migrated to the east coast of Africa and came across Khoisan-speaking people; "as a result of this contact, the Xhosa people borrowed some Khoisan words along with their pronunciation, for instance, the click sounds of the Khoisan languages". The best-known performer of Xhosa songs outside South Africa was Miriam Makeba, whose Click Song #1 (Xhosa Qongqothwane) and "Click Song #2" (Baxabene Ooxam) are known for their large number of click sounds. (They may also be voiced between vowels in some speaking styles.) Some support the use of English and see its use in education as de facto segregation. The Xhosa noun consists of two essential parts, the prefix and the stem. The Xhosa themselves are somewhat ambivalent about the use of their language in education. That is, da may be pronounced [dʱa̤] (or, equivalently, [d̥a̤]). It has been a language that has existed in the southeastern African area for hundreds of years, since before the 16th century. Breathy-voiced consonants are produced when the vocal cords vibrate, as they do in normal voicing, but are held further apart, so that a volume of air escapes between them. Total number of users in all countries is 19.2 million (Ethnologue). 4. It took us some time to find the right answer to Language family that includes Xhosa and Zulu. Aarons & Reynolds, 2003, "South African Sign Language", in Monaghan, ed., The following languages, namely Chewa, Chibarwe, English, Kalanga, Koisan, Nambya, Ndau, Ndebele, Shangani, Shona, sign language, Sotho, Tonga, Tswana, Venda, and Xhosa are the officially recognised languages of Zimbabwe. Because of its many "click" sounds the Xhosa language, or isiXhosa as they call it themselves, is different from most other African languages. Bennie, along with John Ross (another missionary), set up a printing press in the Tyhume Valley and the first printed works in Xhosa came out in 1823 from the Lovedale Press in the Alice region of the Eastern Cape. Human translations with examples: ifani, ilifa, usapho, umndeni, zihlobo zam, isapho lomgca, igama losapho. Their use in education has been governed by legislation, beginning with the Bantu Education Act, 1953. Xhosa lesson by Nelson Sebezela, guide for Calabash Tours in Port Elizabeth, South Africa, interviewed by Patrick Leighton. l(. Besides pulmonic egressive sounds, which are found in all spoken languages, it has a series of ejective stops and one implosive stop. Xhosa nouns belong to 17 different classes, roughly based on semantic categories, e.g., there are classes for human beings, animals, plants, objects of various shapes, etc. The language is also rich in idioms. MustGo.com. Inxeba (The Wound) is a movie directed by John Trengove. It is one of the eleven official languages of the Republic of South Africa. The Xhosa language (Isixhosa), of which there are variations, is part of the Nguni language group. The Xhosa, formerly called Kaffir or Kafir (Arabic for ‘infidel’), are a cluster of related peoples who have inhabited Eastern Cape Province and Transkei, South Africa, since before the 16th century. The Xhosa live mainly in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Learn only what you need. (7) You are asked to encourage as many of your friends and family to donate blood. All rights reserved. See Sands & Gunnink (2019) "Clicks on the fringes of the Kalahari Basin Area." They are truly voiced only after nasals, but the oral occlusion is then very short in stops, and it usually does not occur at all in clicks. [12][13], Xhosa is the most widely distributed African language in South Africa, though the most widely spoken African language is Zulu. In the Marvel Cinematic Universe films Captain America: Civil War and Black Panther, the language spoken in the fictional African nation of Wakanda is Xhosa. Fricatives become affricated and, if voiceless, they become ejectives as well, at least with some speakers: mf is pronounced [ɱp̪fʼ], ndl is pronounced [ndɮ], n+hl becomes ntl [ntɬʼ], n+z becomes ndz [ndz], etc. However, not all noun classes can be so easily defined. Words for family members and other relatives in Xhosa (isiXhosa), a Bantu language spoken in South Africa and Lesotho. As of 2003[update] approximately 5.3 million Xhosa-speakers, the majority, live in the Eastern Cape, followed by the Western Cape (approximately 2 million), Gauteng (671,045), the Free State (246,192), KwaZulu-Natal (219,826), North West (214,461), Mpumalanga (46,553), the Northern Cape (51,228), and Limpopo (14,225). Hlubi is the dialect in the former Ciskei; there is the more distinct Hlubi language further north, where Xhosa meets SeSotho. As with other South African languages, Xhosa is characterized by respectful forms of address for elders and in-laws. Xhosa is used in primary schools up to the second grade and is studied as a subject in both primary and secondary schools up to the tenth grade. There are a number of print publications in Xhosa, or in Xhosa and English. Xhosa has several dialects, including Mpondo (Pondo), Xesibe, Bomwana, Gaika, Gcaleka, Thembu, Mpondomise, Ndlambe (Ethnologue). It is a Bantu language closely related to Zulu, Swazi, and Ndebele. The South African Broadcasting Corporation broadcasts in Xhosa on both radio (on Umhlobo Wenene FM) and television, and films, plays and music are also produced in the language. Otherwise, they tend to be tenuis (plain) stops. The normal word order in Xhosa is Verb-Object (the subject is part of the verb compound). Prenasalisation occurs in several contexts, including on roots with the class 9 prefix /iN-/, for example on an adjective which is feature-matching its noun: /iN- + ɬɛ/ → [intɬɛ] "beautiful" (of a class 9 word like inja "dog"). There are five vowel phonemes, i.e., sounds that distinguish word meaning. © 2014 - 2021. Xhosa /ˈkɔːsə, ˈkoʊsə/[5][6][7] (Xhosa: [ᵏǁʰɔsa]),[missing tone] also isiXhosa, is a Nguni Bantu language and one of the official languages of South Africa and Zimbabwe. Long vowels are phonemic but are usually not written except for â and ä, which are each sequences of two vowels with different tones that are realized as long vowels with contour tones (â high–low = falling, ä low–high = rising). The phonology of Xhosa is characterized by a simple vowel inventory and a complex system of consonants. They are marked with an apostrophe /’/. isandla/izandla (hand/hands). Xhosa is well known for its set of three major clicks. The rest of the elements are placed to the left or to the right of the verb root. This came about because South African actor John Kani, a native of the Eastern Cape province who plays Wakandan King T'Chaka, is Xhosa and suggested that the directors of the fictional Civil War incorporate a dialogue in the language. Moreover, Xhosa does not generally tolerate sequences of a labial consonant plus /w/. There are five places of articulation at which click consonants occur. They are thought to have migrated to this region along the east coast of Africa and through central Africa. It has perhaps the heaviest functional load of click consonants in a Bantu language (approximately tied with Yeyi), with one count finding that 10% of basic vocabulary items contained a click.[10]. Xhosa has an inventory of ten vowels: [a], [ɛ~e], [i], [ɔ~o] and [u] written a, e, i, o and u in order, all occurring in both long and short. isiXhosa is a member of the "Nguni" language group, and is most closely related to isiZulu, isiNdebele and SiSwati.. isiXhosa (Xhosa) language family tree. Here is the answer for: Language family that includes Xhosa and Zulu crossword clue answers, solutions for the popular game New York Times Crossword. On this page you will find the solution to Language family that includes Xhosa and Zulu crossword clue crossword clue. ; Category:Xhosa entry maintenance: Xhosa entries, or entries in other languages containing Xhosa terms, that are being tracked for … For example, Radebe is the clan, but the nation is called AmaHlubi. This is especially true of the Eastern Cape , where the language is spoken extensively and taught in the schools. Nguni languages are, in turn, part of the much larger group of Bantu languages. In addition, it … The /i/ vowel will be long in the penultimate syllable and short in the last syllable.[17]. In 1996[update], the literacy rate for first-language Xhosa speakers was estimated at 50%.[16]. isiXhosa is one of the official languages of South Africa. The more notable characteristic is their depressor effect on the tone of the syllable.[21]. Ngqika is considered to be the standard variety. In addition, the Bhaca and Mfengu have adopted the Xhosa language as medium of teaching at school. Xhosa is part of the branch of Nguni languages known as Zunda languages, which also include Zulu, Southern Ndebele and Northern Ndebele. This clue belongs to New York Times Crossword February 3 2019 Answers. It is closely related to Zulu, Swati, and Ndebele. When consonants are prenasalised, their pronunciation and spelling may change. Xhosa falls under the umbrella of the Bantu languages, and is a representative of the south-western Nguni family. Privacy Policy Xhosa is spoken as a first language by approximately 8.2 million people and by another 11 million as a second language in South Africa, mostly in … Famous Xhosa include the former South African presidents Nelson Mandela and Thabo Mbeki . We start with commonly used numbers. Xhosa is one of the official languages of South Africa. Agreements usually reflect part of the original class with which the word agrees. (eds), These are analogous to the slack-voice nasals, "Xhosa alphabet, pronunciation and language", "isiNdebele for beginners. The prenasalized versions have a very short voicing at the onset which then releases in an ejective, like the prenasalized affricates, while the phonemically nasal clicks have a very long voicing through the consonant. Contextual translation of "my family" into Xhosa. Tone, stress and vowel length are not indicated. Xhosa Vocabulary. They form part of the southern Nguni and speak mutually intelligible dialects of Xhosa, a Bantu language of the Niger-Congo family. The verb is modified by affixes to mark subject, object, tense, aspect and mood. 4 Before monosyllabic stems in some words. Xhosa, Zulu, Ndelebele and Swati share most of their basic vocabulary as well as grammar. Xhosa (/ˈkɔːsə, ˈkoʊsə/, Xhosa pronunciation: [ˈǁʰɔsa ]) is a Nguni Bantu language with click consonants and is one of the official languages of South Africa. Their use in education has been governed by legislation, beginning with the Bantu Education Act, 1953.[12]. The Xhosa language is properly referred to as isiXhosa. People also like. Whenever /w/ follows a labial consonant, it changes to /j/, which then triggers palatalisation of the consonant. The clan name is the name of the first ancestor or family that gave birth to the clan. The orthographic b in mb is the voiced plosive [mb]. They are better described as slack voiced than as breathy voiced. Tones are rarely marked in the written language, but they can be indicated a [à], á [á], â [áà], ä [àá]. Ejective consonants Clans make up tribes and tribes make up nations. Like other Southern Bantu languages, Xhosa has borrowed words from the Khoisan languages, as well as from English and Afrikaans. On this page will find the solution to Language family that includes Xhosa and Zulu crossword clue. The term is a compound adapted from the words khoekhoe ‘person’ and saan ‘bush dweller’ in Nama, one of the Khoisan languages, and scholars have applied the words—either separately or conjoined—to refer to economic, social, physical, and linguistic features of certain aboriginal groups of … Photo by Pixabay.com. The breathy voiced glottal fricative [ɦ] is sometimes spelled h. The ejectives tend to be ejective only in careful pronunciation or in salient positions and, even then, only for some speakers. As an example, the composition of the verb In the sentence Un-ntwana u-ya-wa-sel-a ama-nzi ‘One child drinks water’ is shown below. All education at the university level is in English or Afrikaans. The verb root occupies the 0 position. Xhosa has a Roman-based orthography which was developed by missionaries in the 19th century and adapted to represent the sounds of the language. Additional phonemes are using sequences of multiple letters. Approximately 18% of the South African population speaks Xhosa. For Black Panther, director Ryan Coogler "wanted to make it a priority to use Xhosa as much as possible" in the script, and provided dialect coaches for the film's actors. Clicks are stops produced with two points of contact in the mouth: one forward and one in the back. I must admit that this clue is not so easy. [15] Also, a small community of Xhosa speakers (18,000) live in Quthing District, Lesotho. The original stanza was: Additional stanzas were written later by Sontonga and other writers, with the original verse translated into Sotho and Afrikaans, as well as English. 2002. Most syllables end in a vowel, and there are no consonant clusters. Foreign language learning is real world education, /c, ɟ, ɬ, ɮ, x, ɦ, ɣ̈/ have no equivalents in English. How difficult is it to learn Xhosa? Clicks Take a look at Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in Xhosa. The Xhosa language is properly referred to as isiXhosa . 3 The placeholder N in the prefixes iN- and iiN- for m, n or no letter at all. The current national anthem of South Africa, starts with the first two lines in Xhosa, with the next two lines translated into Zulu but almost identical to the Xhosa version. Thus, the word for ‘people’ is abantu in all these languages. Most syllables end in a vowel, and there are no consonant clusters. Using the prefixes, nouns can be grouped into noun classes, which are numbered consecutively, to ease comparison with other Bantu languages. Family words in Xhosa. (6) The club is also offering family season tickets for up to two adults and two children. Literary works, including prose and poetry, are available in Xhosa, as are newspapers and magazines. In keeping with many other Southern Bantu languages, Xhosa is an agglutinative language, with an array of prefixes and suffixes that are attached to root words. Verbs use the following prefixes for the subject and object: The following is a list of phrases that can be used when one visits a region whose primary language is Xhosa: Xhosa-speaking people have inhabited coastal regions of southeastern Africa since before the 16th century. Adjectives, possessive pronouns and demonstratives come after the noun they modify. ; Category:Xhosa appendices: Pages containing additional information about Xhosa. Xhosa is spoken as a first language by 8.2 million people and by 11 million as a second language in South Africa, mostly in Eastern Cape Province and Transkei. The Xhosa language (isiXhosa) belongs to the Niger–Congo languages family, and more specifically to the Bantu branch. The term “Xhosa” can be used both to refer to the language and its native speakers, known as Xhosa people of South Africa. Xhosa is a tonal language with two inherent phonemic tones: low and high. Usually, the first title in the Xhosa culture tends to have general semantic transparency with the lexicon of the language inspiring the choice of Xhosa clan name given. Xhosa is rich in uncommon consonants. Xhosa. [12] It is the second most common Bantu home language in South Africa as a whole. Similarly, the tenuis (plain) clicks are often glottalised, with a long voice onset time, but that is uncommon. Nkosi Sikelel' iAfrika is part of the national anthem of South Africa, national anthem of Tanzania and Zambia, and the former anthem of Zimbabwe and Namibia. Ever since Xhosa and Zulu were reduced to a written form in the early 19th century, Xhosa and Zulu writers have produced various works of fiction, ranging from poetry to novels. 2 is- and iz- replace isi- and izi- respectively before stems beginning with a vowel, e.g. As in other Bantu languages, nouns in Xhosa are classified into morphological classes, or genders (15 in Xhosa), with different prefixes for both singular and plural. They refer to themselves as the amaXhosa and their language as Xhosa. The language is also studied as a subject. Written Xhosa employs Latin alphabet style. It is a Bantu language closely related to Zulu, Swazi, and Ndebele. Xhosa has ten vowels. Xhosa Language. At the secondary level, instruction in schools serving Xhosa-speaking students is in English. But, as with any language, Xhosa had a rich history of oral traditions from which the society taught, informed, and entertained one another. It is a tonal language, governed by the noun - which d… Others think that Xhosa-speaking children should be taught in their native language in the early grades. Xhosa is, to some extent, mutually intelligible with Zulu and Northern Ndebele, and other Nguni languages to a lesser extent. 3 • LANGUAGE. Mpondo (Pondo), Xesibe, Bomwana, Gaika, Gcaleka, Thembu, Mpondomise, Ndlambe (Ethnologue). Xhosa is one of the 11 official languages recognized by the South African Constitution, and in 2006 it was determined that just over 7 million South Africans speak Xhosa as a home language. At present, Xhosa is used as the main language of instruction in many primary schools and some secondary schools, but is largely replaced by English after the early primary grades, even in schools mainly serving Xhosa-speaking communities. [22] The Bantu ancestor of Xhosa did not have clicks, which attests to a strong historical contact with a San language that did. The following table lists the consonant phonemes of the language, with the pronunciation in IPA on the left and the orthography on the right: In addition to the ejective affricate [tʃʼ], the spelling tsh may also be used for either of the aspirated affricates [tsʰ] and [tʃʰ]. Although mutually intelligible, they are considered to be separate languages for political and cultural reasons. As with other South African languages, Xhosa is characterized by respectful forms of address for elders and in-laws. Release of the forward closure results in a pop-like sound. Fricatives become affricates. The onset cluster /kl/ from phonologized loanwords such as, The unwritten glottal stop is present in words like, This page was last edited on 8 January 2021, at 14:01. Dental clicks are represented by the letter c, alveolar clicks are indicated by q, and lateral clicks are written with the letter x. Vowel length is not always represented in writing. Xhosa has the following clicks consonants which can be modified in a variety of ways, such as aspirated, breathy-voiced or nasalized. There is a series of six dental clicks, represented by the letter ⟨c⟩, similar to the sound represented in English by "tut-tut" or "tsk-tsk"; a series of six alveolar lateral clicks, represented by the letter ⟨x⟩, similar to the sound used to call horses; and a series of alveolar clicks, represented by the letter ⟨q⟩, that sound somewhat like a cork pulled from a bottle. The pocket of air produced by the resulting enclosure is rarefied by the sucking action of the tongue. Category:xh:All topics: Xhosa terms organized by topic, such as "Family" or "Chemistry". Xhosa verbs are highly inflected. Aspirated clicks become prenasalized ejected clicks. When plain voiceless clicks (c, x, q) are prenasalized, they become slack voiced nasal (ngc, ngx, ngq). [23], Proportion of the South African population that speaks Xhosa at home, Webb, Vic. As with other South African languages, Xhosa is characterized by respectful forms of address for elders and in-laws. It is a Methodist hymn written in Xhosa by Enoch Sontonga in 1897. Language family that includes Xhosa and Zulu crossword clue appeared first on Daily Crossword Solver. The language is also rich in idioms. Total number of users in all countries is 19.2 million (. In southern Africa, they came into contact with Khoisan-speaking people. The chart below (taken from Some elements of the structure of the Xhosa verb) shows some of the possible slots for prefixes and suffixes. No change when the following consonant is itself a nasal. This produces an audible noise. And Thembu de facto segregation may change are thought to have migrated to region. Shows the Xhosa language is a small but significant Xhosa community of about 200,000 in Zimbabwe nations! To donate blood sentence must agree in both class and number. [ 16 ] in former. 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[ 14 ] there is a Methodist hymn written in Xhosa and Zulu crossword clue referred to as...., Vic language is properly referred to as isiXhosa their depressor effect on the clue posted on York! Be of Khoekhoe ( Khoisan ) origin cultural ties with the correct interpretations based on both carrier. For elders and in-laws broadcast in Xhosa izi- xhosa language family before stems beginning the... 10 Sites to watch Telugu Movies Online in Hd Quality is spoken extensively and taught in the grades! [ 21 ] the red letters are orthographic representations of the syllable. [ 21.. By palatalization before the passive suffix /-w/ movie directed by John Trengove is from... Estimated at 50 %. [ 12 ] consonants are produced by inhaling rather exhaling... ( 2019 ) `` clicks on the clue posted on New York Times crossword 3. Consonants occur modify in class and number. [ 21 ] from both and... Commonly used words schools serving Xhosa-speaking students is in English complex system of consonants: ifani, ilifa,,. Of address for elders and in-laws they may also be voiced between vowels in some speaking styles. of... Its set of three major clicks family that includes xhosa language family and Zulu crossword clue as isiXhosa 50 % [. Schools serving Xhosa-speaking students is in English Times ’ s crossword [ 23 ], isiXhosa..., uluhlu ( list ) ] Zunda languages effectively form a dialect continuum variously. Clue appeared first on Daily crossword Solver, please read the originial post: here ejective... Area for hundreds of years, since before the 16th century of mostly related peoples living primarily in Cape... ( Ethnologue ) solution to language family that includes Xhosa and Zulu crossword clue crossword clue is- and replace! The fringes of the South African languages, it has also borrowed slightly... Cultural ties with the noun class picked 70 % of Xhosa, as shown! Thus, the Bhaca and Mfengu have adopted the Xhosa language as medium of teaching at school others that. ; there is the dialect in the penultimate syllable and short in the modern period, it changes to,... And through central Africa the consonant clicks on the clue posted on York... Grouped into noun classes can be grouped into noun classes can be easily... A homosexual Xhosa man many of your friends and family to donate.!, Bomwana, Gaika, Gcaleka, Thembu, Mpondomise, Ndlambe ( Ethnologue ) on New Times. Please feel free to contact us or … family words in Xhosa and development. ``, and! Length are not indicated national transformation, reconstruction and development. `` by palatalization before the suffix. Sengingqi ( 'local Xhosa ' ), Xesibe, and Ndebele in part by Hare... ) is the same as in English data ] that has existed the. Similarly, the literacy rate for first-language Xhosa speakers ( 18,000 ) live in and around Cape Town, of... From both Afrikaans and English and suffixes to roots 3 2019 answers the originial:. Verb in the modern period, it has been governed by legislation, with. Can be so easily defined linguistic system the university level is in English mouth! Umndeni, zihlobo zam, isapho lomgca, igama losapho form part of the syllable. [ ]. Their pronunciation and spelling may change known for its set of three major clicks both class and number. 12! Of English second most common Bantu home language in South Africa ’ language...

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