commence to + infinitive: I commenced to train a yoke of oxen. [16] The Appalachian dialect retains a number of speech patterns found in Colonial American English but largely discarded in Standard speech, such as "r" intrusion (e.g., "warsh" for "wash") and a "y" sound in place of "a" on the end of certain words (e.g., "okry" for "okra"). They don't have no one to rely on of the night. Smoky Mountain English uses never in two ways differing from general usage. Thus, of inflected forms in the present tense, only those in the third person require discussion. mso-style-link:"Document Map Char"; Used to can combine with a modal verb or another auxiliary. Is that road much steep? With ten brothers and sisters, he ain't a gonna get lonesome. It had a lid, a little lever. In Smokies speech an infinitive is sometimes introduced by for + to when general usage has only to. -es to nouns after excrescent -t to form syllabic plurals: clastes, dostes. on (after a verb to express an unfortunate, unforeseen, or uncontrollable occurrence): When my cow up and died on me, hit wuz a main blow. Michael Montgomery and others have used grammatical evidence, which is generally slower to change than pronunciations, to track Appalachian speech back to their origins from the predominantly Scots-Irish immigrants that settled in the area, along with others. The older ones was done through school and married. -y to form adjectives from verbs: costy, haunty, jolty, lasty, resty, scary, yieldy. Despite formal similarity to the other usages, postposed one is most likely derived from the phrase one or the other. Big may appear in its positive, comparative, or superlative form and modify any of several nouns, but the meaning of the construction remains the same (“most” or perhaps more loosely, “major”). 2.3.4  Own is sometimes added to form an emphatic reflexive, which is always based on the possessive rather than the objective form. Has is often used with plural nouns, but not with they. Forums pour discuter de Appalachian, voir ses formes composées, des exemples et poser vos questions. Its a Small Town Life. The [hunters] that went the other way into the mountain, they'd killed them turkeys. See §8.1. We would gather our apples in of a day and peel our apples of a night and put them out on a scaffold. 2.9  Relative Pronouns. Finite be also occurs in main clauses, regardless of the number and person of the subject. See: Shelby Lee Adams, "Of Kentucky," New York Times (Sunday Review), November 13, 2011, p. 9. They built a little one-room house and had the Tow String childrens to go to school there a long time. Porch Swings & Sweet Tea. There's an old house up here, but don't nobody live in it, not noway. They didn't none of us ever get snakebit, but their work animal did. Others believe that it is its own dialect with results coming from differing lexical variables. (= as far as), Is that all the best you can do? You-all may be [needing] it one of these days. Now my memory's not as good as it used to be. This is commonly referred to as the, Verb forms for the verb "to lay" are used instead of forms of the verb "to lie." I. nobody never set it for any bears since; that's been thirty years ago. One popular theory is that the dialect is a preserved remnant of 16th-century (or "Elizabethan") English in isolation,[5][6] though a far more accurate comparison would be to 18th-century (or "colonial") English. In others the verb introduced by for to has the implied subject of the higher clause, in which case it usually expresses a purpose and is equivalent to “in order to.”. a- (historically a reduction of the preposition on, this is attached to a variety of forms in Smokies English as an empty, redundant prefix): 1  present-participle forms of verbs (§9): a-going, etc. I have been powerful bothered for several days. a long, bushy beard). almost anywhere), Well, they were all kinfolks just about, you see. can combine with a modal verb or another auxiliary. leave out “depart”: Moonshining is just about left out. This sketch surveys the elements of morphology and syntax—how words are formed and constructed into phrases and clauses—of the traditional English of the Smoky Mountains of North Carolina and Tennessee, one of the most widely recognized parts of Southern Appalachia.